A consortium of Belgian research groups, including Oxyrane Belgium , also designed Y. The same Belgian consortium has also engineered N-glycan biosynthesis in Y. The involved steps were the following De Pourcq et al.
Read e-book Yarrowia lipolytica: Genetics, Genomics, and Physiology: 24 (Microbiology Monographs)
Interestingly, the resulting Man3GlcNAc2 core produced is common to all mammalian N-glycan structures and can be modified further in vitro to yield any of the complex type N-glycans, providing that adequate glycosyltranferases and sugar-nucleotide donors were used De Pourcq et al. These new expression platforms will promote Y. The same consortium of Belgian research groups, including Oxyrane Belgium , has also developed a glycoengineered Y.
This strain was designed for producing recombinant human lysosomal enzymes for ERTs of lysosomal storage diseases. This technology has high potential for the production of cost effective and more efficient enzymes for replacement therapy of lysosomal diseases. Use of recombinant Y. Several heterologous EH genes of various phylogenetic origins from a bacterium, fungi, a plant, an insect, or a mammal have been expressed intracellularly in Y. The process was optimized using a multicopy strain and an exponential feed model of fermentation Maharajh et al.
Cytochrome Pexpressing Y. Their heterologous expression is both of fundamental investigation of their role in xenobiotics and drug degradation pathways and of economical interest use in bioconversion for synthesis of hydroxylated biomolecules in biotechnological or therapeutic applications , as reviewed by Novikova et al.
Several heterologous CYP genes of various phylogenetic origins from a fungus, a plant, or mammals have been expressed intracellularly in Y. These studies demonstrated the potential of Y. A research group from the Graz University of Technology Austria demonstrated the potential of two recombinant Y. In this biphasic system, cells and water-soluble nutrients were maintained in an aqueous phase, when substrates and most of the products were in a second waterimmiscible organic solvent phase, which enabled more efficient bioconversion and simplified continuous process Braun et al.
This work took advantage of the lipophilic properties of Y. Engineering Y. The most successful approaches were the expression of a fungal pyruvate carboxylase gene Yin et al. Similarly, a consortium of German research groups centered on Dresden University and UBZ from Leipzig engineered H strain a derivative of the wild-type H strain with high KGA productivity from alkanes for improved KGA production using raw glycerol as a renewable carbon source.
These studies showed that modifying the expression level of these genes affected both organic acid yields and product spectrum, in a production conditiondependent manner Holz et al. Very recently, the same German research groups showed that reducing the expression of Y. It is also the only one for which efficient genetic tools are available. The size and fatty acid composition of intracellular lipid bodies is determined by the POX genotype.
Several research groups from Jiangnan University China enhanced lipid accumulation in Y. In consequence of the oleaginous status of Y. They took advantage of the very effective uptake of lipids, characteristic of this yeast, which can be attributed to several factors: production of bio-surfactants e. Some major examples of the engineering of Y. Single-cell oil production for health applications Microorganisms can be a valuable source of edible SCOs enriched in essential fatty acids, namely polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFAs not synthesized by mammals but essential for health.
PUFAs must be supplied by diet, and SCOs can play a role in their supply, as a cheaper and environment-friendly alternative to plant or fish oils. There is a strong economic interest in engineering Y. The corresponding Y. More recently, a consortium of Taiwanese including Yeastern Biotech Co. Single-cell oils for biofuel production The search for renewable fuels as petroleum alternatives has prompted study of SCOs as a potentially viable source of fatty acids for biodiesel synthesis. As an oleaginous yeast able to grow on various agro-industrial by-products or wastes, Y.
Transesterification can occur as a distinct in vitro process or can be integrated as a direct in vivo step, in an engineered cell factory. In order to make the use of SCOs for biofuel production economically feasible, low-cost feedstock needs to be employed as the carbon source for both biomass production and neutral lipid synthesis. Various waste feedstocks have been proposed for that purpose, such as biodiesel-derived waste glycerol, lignocellulosic hydrolysates, used oils, sewage, and agricultural or food-processing wastes Cheirsilp and Louhasakul ; Sestric et al.
Like other oleaginous yeasts, Y.
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In order to develop the production of SCOs from lignocellulosic biomass, composed of carbohydrate polymers cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin aromatic polymer , research groups from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory USA have engineered Y. A chimeric cellobiohydrolase I, secreted by Y. Similarly, a synergistic effect on the conversion of xylan to xylose was observed when two fungal xylanases an endo-xylanase and an exoxylosidase secreted by Y.
In order to establish Y. They rewired Y. This combinatorial multiplexing produced 57 genotypes that were analyzed for their lipogenesis capacity, in comparison with the wild-type strain. This study also advanced the fundamental understanding of lipogenesis by presenting evidence that two of its central tenets, the necessity for nitrogen starvation and citric acid cycling, are not universal.
Get e-book Yarrowia lipolytica: Genetics, Genomics, and Physiology: 24 (Microbiology Monographs)
It reported the highest lipid titer obtained for Y. Previously, the same research groups had also engineered Y. DuPont Company has engineered Y. At last, Gao et al. A consortium of research groups, including notably laboratories from Ghent Appl Microbiol Biotechnol University Belgium and INRA France , is currently using specific enzymatic pathways from hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria and from other hydrocarbon or lipid-degrading bacteria isolated from contaminated environments, to redirect Y.
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Up to now, the most advanced projects concern PHAs, biodegradable linear polyesters naturally produced by some bacteria from excess supply of sugar or lipids, which can be used for producing bioplastics. Recombinant Y. The composition of the PHAs produced was also shown to be dependent on the Y. These studies constitute a stepping stone in establishing Y. Future perspectives Since several decades, Y. The relatively recent development of surface display and oleosome targeting methods has opened new possibilities of using arming Y.
Further improvements of the Y. Complete genome, transcriptome, and proteome data will allow to identify bottlenecks in protein secretion and quality control pathways and to study the response of cells challenged with the stress of overproducing heterologous proteins.
The development of high-throughput screening platforms will favor the use of Y. The development of -omic approaches and of metabolic modeling will offer new perspectives in metabolic pathway engineering, allowing a better use of Y. The recent proof of concept of the possible use of DNA assembler methods in Y. Some new tools would however be desirable, such as ORFome, knockout or overexpression libraries, a twohybrid system or fully repressible strong inducible promoters.
Conflict of interest The author declares no conflict of interest. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol — Microbiology Monographs Vol. In: Wolf K ed Nonconventional yeasts in biotechnology: a handbook. Appl Environ Microbiol — Biochimie — Prog Lipid Res — J Biotechnol — Nat Commun J Biol Chem — J Microbiol Methods — Enzyme Microb Technol — Microb Cell Fact International Patent Application WO Biotechnol Bioeng — CO; Cheirsilp B, Louhasakul Y Industrial wastes as a promising renewable source for production of microbial lipid and direct transesterification of the lipid into biodiesel.
Bioresour Technol — N Biotechnol — Process Biochem — PLoS One 7:e Nature — Metab Eng — Devel Ind Microbiol —57 Fukuda R Metabolism of hydrophobic carbon sources and regulation of it in n-alkane-assimilating yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.
Yarrowia lipolytica by Gerold Barth (ebook)
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem — French Patent Application FR Engineering laccase for improved activity towards sterically demanding substrates. Biotechnol Lett — Microb Cell Fact — Food Chem Toxicol — Crit Rev Microbiol — Biotechnol Bioeng — Yeast — J Biol Chem — Appl Microbiol Biotechnol —6. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng — Biotechnol Prog — J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol — Curr Genet — Genome Announc 2:e— Mar Biotechnol NY 26— BMC Syst Biol Microbiology — J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol — Protein Eng Des Sel — Lett Appl Microbiol —5.
Mol Gen Genet — J Microbiol — Environ Chem Lett — Cloning of two novel promoters from Yarrowia lipolytica. Yeast — Mar Biotechnol NY — Mar Biotechnol NY 11 1 — Tetrahed Lett — Mol Biol Evol — Mol Biotechnol — Microb Biotechnol 4: 47— J Mol Catal B Enzym — Microbiology —50 Tai M, Stephanopoulos G Engineering the push and pull of lipid biosynthesis in oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for biofuel production.
Metab Eng —9. Gene — Nat Biotechnol — PLoS One 9: e Biotechnol Biofuels Biotechnol Appl Biochem — Methods Mol Biol — J Microbiol Met — Protein Expr Purif — Appl Microbiol Biotechnol — J Biotechnol PA— Food Chem — Suggest Documents.
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