The first principle emphasizes problem-centered instruction or involving students in real-world tasks. For effective instruction, problems should be relevant, interesting, and engaging 14 , and there should be a progression from less complex to more complex problems 36 , In the second phase of activating previous knowledge, prior mental models or schema are activated to promote instructional effectiveness. Simply put, to avoid overwhelming students who lack foundational knowledge, provide them with relevant experience to be used as a foundation for the new knowledge This step is often ignored by faculty members who assume all students have similar educational backgrounds, although admission committees try to diversify the student body by accepting qualified students of different backgrounds.
In the third demonstration principle, information is presented to the learners. In this phase, we'll discuss basic educational theories for effective instructional strategies and give examples of instructional design models that could be used to guide the design and development of instructional materials. The fourth phase is to apply learned knowledge in different authentic situations and to provide feedback for guidance.
For example, in a medical school setting to teach basic sciences including physiology, it is important to provide the clinical relevance for the basic science information and explain important relationships.
Thereafter, provide students with different clinical scenarios to apply what they have learned to solve clinical problems. The last phase, integration or the transfer of knowledge, is used in different ways. To produce effective instruction, all instructional design models require the following phases: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.
These instructional design phases are summarized by the acronym ADDIE, and hence it is now considered a separate model. Analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation ADDIE model phases and the steps during each phase. In the analysis phase, the learner, context, and instructional materials are analyzed to identify the characteristics of the target learner e.
In the design phase, the learning objectives are identified to outline content and instructional strategies. The latter consists of preinstructional activities, content presentation, and learner participation. During the design phase, the delivery methods, types of learning activities, and different types of media are selected. The development phase includes creating the instructional contents, a prototype, and assessment instruments. The implementation phase is the actual delivery of instructional materials to support students' mastery of the learning objectives.
The evaluation phase includes formative and summative evaluation. The formative evaluation occurs between the phases throughout the entire instructional design process to continuously improve instruction before final implementation. The summative evaluation occurs after the implementation of the final version to assess the overall effectiveness of instruction. Dick and Carey 5 outlined the importance of using a systematic approach in designing instruction.
The components of the system include the teacher, learner, instructional materials, and learning environment.
The effectiveness of the systematic approach in designing instruction is to provide 1 focus when a clear goal or objectives are stated up front to guide the design of instruction, 2 careful linkage between each component, and 3 an empirical and replicable process. The Dick and Carey model includes the following steps: Identify instructional goals. The Dick and Carey model provides detailed step-by-step processes that could easily be followed. It is very helpful for novice instructional designers to understand the details regarding the principles of the systemic approach to instructional design.
An example of this elaboration is what happens in the analysis phase, which facilitates the writing of performance objectives or learning outcomes i.
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The analysis is guided by assessing the needs to identify the gap followed by writing the instructional goals and then the performance objectives. Analyses of instruction, learners, and context are outlined as the necessary processes in identifying the goals and writing performance objectives, and the focus of the analyses outcomes are also defined. Steps in Dick and Carey model during the analysis phase to write the performance objectives. The model outlines the need for authentic learning processes, managing cognitive load during learning, repeated practice, and assessment and feedback.
It is an excellent model for integrating complex concepts from different disciplines. The model suggests ordering learning tasks from low to high cognitive activities, focusing the learner's attention onto the most challenging aspect of learning, and promoting germane load when scaffolding the learner's efforts as he or she interacts with simple to complex tasks. The tasks are organized from simple to complex activities, and a high level of support is provided to the learner at the beginning, which later diminishes by the end of the task scaffolding.
Supportive information provides a bridge between the learner's prior knowledge and learning tasks. It consists of mental models, cognitive strategies, and cognitive feedback.
Just-in-time information is prerequisite information to the learning and performance, which consists of demonstrations and corrective feedback. The information is presented when needed and fades with acquiring expertise. Part-task practice provides learners with additional practice for selected aspects of the whole task to ensure the achievement of desired learning outcomes.
In organizing the tasks into simple to complex activities and providing supporting information, it is very important to consider the learner level of expertise and background, especially because a diverse student body is now recommended for admission to many schools. For example, many students accepted into medical schools are from rural, economically disadvantage areas and are ethnic minorities.
In addition, it is very common to have students with biological sciences, engineering, and social sciences backgrounds in the same class. To overcome this issue, development of online learning activities would be provided before class to meet the needs of those students [i. Once again, this would emphasize the importance of conducting learner analysis as part of the analysis phase. It is easy to follow and provides a simple structure. Physiologists of different instructional design experience can use the ADDIE model to guide the development of their instructions.
The above-mentioned theories and instructional design models have very practical implications for how faculty members design instruction and deliver content in the classroom and laboratory. If there is a need for more information and detailed explanations of what happens in each phase, the Dick and Carey model will be helpful.
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General examples of what to do in all the essential instructional design phases are provided below. Often faculty members think as subject matter experts and assume that, if they know the content, they know what works and what doesn't with regard to teaching that content. However, students come to class with misconceptions or lacking the required entry behaviors.
Even students who may have met the prerequisites may not demonstrate adequate understanding of the foundational knowledge and may not be able to connect it to the content at hand. This might surprise some faculty members, who assume all of their learners have mastered the prerequisite knowledge. To avoid such false assumptions, it's very important for faculty members to conduct instructional and learner analysis to identify subordinate skills, entry behaviors, and characteristics of the target learners, that is, to know what students might know and what they might not know before they arrive to the class or laboratory.
This step will help faculty members determine the objectives and plays a major role in choosing the instructional strategies later on. Without proper analysis, or only with the benefit of hindsight, faculty members teaching physiology may not know which concepts are more challenging for learners and need more emphasis and which concepts are likely to be most easy for learners and thus can be glossed over.
In this analysis phase, and especially in higher education and professional schools, it is important to consider the principles of adult learning theory, which describe many parameters of adult learners that inform the design of instruction for successful learning outcomes. When faculty members start to think as instructional designers, they will be able to deal with learning as a process, not as a set of content areas.
A crucial part of the learning process is creating specific and detailed learning objectives so that not only will the learners know what is expected of them and what is important but the faculty members can determine how they will teach the content as well as how they will evaluate and assess the instruction and the learners' success. Therefore, this design phase should be systematic and specific. Consider the beginning level of your learner's knowledge and skills and choose objectives to move them to the next level. Based on the learning objectives, faculty members need to select the appropriate teaching methods for the cognitive level of the learning objectives and decide which type of assessments should be used to monitor the learner's progress and success Fig.
For example, it is advisable to develop assessment instruments that are parallel to the stated learning objectives with an emphasis on relating the domain of learning and cognitive level of the objective to what the assessment requires. Similarly, for different domains of learning, the appropriate teaching methods are required. Active lecture and self-directed computer-based instruction are more appropriate for teaching low cognitive level objectives, whereas problem-based learning, discussions, or case studies are appropriate methods for teaching high cognitive level objectives.
Utilization of Bloom's taxonomy cognitive level in writing learning objectives and how these objectives are related to the selection of teaching methods and assessment strategies. After completing the design phase, faculty members are now ready to create and develop content that is targeted to the learners and desired level of learning. In the development phase, faculty members design the structure and flow of the information as well as the type of media that will be used to deliver the content and develop the learning activities. Faculty members can modify existing resource materials to align with the goal of the learning activities or can develop new materials.
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It is worth the effort to update previous year PPT presentations and other learning materials based on the current learners' analysis and design decisions. In this phase, it is important to refer to the principles of multimedia design 27 , 28 and cognitive load theory guidelines 24 , 48 , 50 to create your instructional materials. Faculty members could simply apply these principles in creating their PPT slides, which has been reported to improve long-term retention and transfer The implementation phase is the actual use of the learning experience. In this phase, learners are prepared and instructional context and technology are secured.
Faculty members verify that learners have acquired the proper prerequisites and received orientation and training on the hardware and software to be used during the delivery of instruction and that they have access to all supporting materials. The implementation phase provides an opportunity to evaluate what was planned during the design phase and to make sure everything perform as predicted.
The last major step in the process is the evaluation phase. Evaluation can happen at any stage of the instructional design process.
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Formative evaluation is conducted during the design and development phases to improve instruction and learning materials and to make sure they are aligned with the learning goal and objectives. Faculty members can try out newly developed instructional materials with a small group of students and record their performance and feedback. Student feedback on the clarity, accuracy, sequence, and difficulty level will be corrected before the actual delivery of instruction to the entire class.
A large-scale formative evaluation is usually conducted by the office of assessment and evaluation, which collects data on students' performance and perceptions toward specific courses or modules. Summative evaluation is conducted at the end of the instruction to ensure that learners achieved the learning objectives and that the course achieved its goals. It is important when assessing students' performance to clearly understand the difference between formative assessment, which is assessment for learning 3 , 38 , and summative assessment, which is assessment of learning Table 2 shows a comparison between the two types of assessment and their definitions 3 , 43 , functions 50 , and characteristics Often, faculty members mistakenly turn formative assessment into summative assessment by assigning a score that is counted toward the final grade.
Remember: with formative assessment you're trying to help students develop self-evaluation skills rather than trying to make judgments of their learning. The central component of formative assessment is providing feedback Many researchers have linked the performance in formative assessment to summative assessment outcomes 18 , 29 and the importance of self-regulation in developing skills for lifelong learning 7 , 51 , The global appreciation of the value of formative assessment for learning is represented, for example, by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education requirement for provision of formative assessment in undergraduate medical education Table 2.
Comparison between formative and summative assessments.
Based on evidence from the full range of performance relevant to the assessment criteria.